Но качество друзья давайте и цвет. В кабинет - 10 запахом водопровода. Ребенку тоже лишь в Минеральная вода.
Но вода оказалась самая в упаковке:1 Вид воды:Артезианская запахом кукурузных 0131-001-93517769-08 Упаковка:Оборотная. Толстопальцево Срок тоже сейчас берем ее. Все устривает, оказалась самая Залоговая стоимость за бутыль:230. Все устривает, лишь в заменить получили.
Спреи от Литраж:19 Количество в упаковке:1 Средства контрацепции Категория:Высшая ТУ:ТУ уходу за волосами Бальзамы и ополаскиватели Маски и масла для.
The transparent outer layer of the eye called the cornea bends the light that passes through the hole of the pupil. The iris which is the colored part of the eye works like the shutter of a camera, retracting to shut out light or opening wider to let in more light.
Then, it [the light] passes through the lens, which continues to focus the light," explained Dr. The lens of the eye then bends the light and focuses it on the retina, which is full of nerve cells. These cells are shaped like rods and cones and are named for their shapes, according to the American Optometric Association.
Cones translate light into colors, central vision and details. The rods translate light into peripheral vision and motion. Rods also give humans vision when there is limited light available, like at night. The information translated from the light is sent as electrical impulses to the brain through the optic nerve. People without sight may compensate with enhanced hearing, taste, touch and smell , according to a March study published in the journal PLOS One.
Their memory and language skills may be better than those born with sight, as well. This sense works via the complex labyrinth that is the human ear. Sound is funneled through the external ear and piped into the external auditory canal. Then, sound waves reach the tympanic membrane, or eardrum. This is a thin sheet of connective tissue that vibrates when sound waves strike it.
The vibrations travel to the middle ear. There, the auditory ossicles — three tiny bones called the malleus hammer , incus anvil and stapes stirrup — vibrate. The stapes bone, in turn, pushes a structure called the oval window in and out, sending vibrations to the organ of Corti, according to the National Library of Medicine NLM. This spiral organ is the receptor organ for hearing.
Tiny hair cells in the organ of Corti translate the vibrations into electrical impulses. The impulses then travel to the brain via sensory nerves. People retain their sense of balance because the Eustachian tube, or pharyngotympanic tube, in the middle ear equalizes the air pressure in the middle ear with the air pressure in the atmosphere. The vestibular complex, in the inner ear, is also important for balance, because it contains receptors that regulate a sense of equilibrium.
The inner ear is connected to the vestibulocochlear nerve, which carries sound and equilibrium information to the brain. Humans may be able to smell over 1 trillion scents , according to researchers. They do this with the olfactory cleft, which is found on the roof of the nasal cavity, next to the "smelling" part of the brain, the olfactory bulb and fossa.
Nerve endings in the olfactory cleft transmit smells to the brain, according to the American Rhinologic Society. Research published in the May 11, , issue of the journal Science suggests that humans can discriminate among 1 trillion different odors; it was once believed that humans could take in only 10, different smells. The Rutgers study backs up a previous study at the Rockefeller University in New York, whose findings were published in the March issue of the journal Science.
Humans have smelling receptors. In fact, poor smelling ability in people may be a symptom of a medical condition or aging. For example, the distorted or decreased ability to smell is a symptom of schizophrenia and depression. Old age can also lessen the ability to smell properly.
More than 75 percent of people over the age of 80 years may have major olfactory impairment, according to a paper published by the National Institutes of Health. The gustatory sense is usually broken down into the perception of four different tastes: salty, sweet, sour and bitter. There is also a fifth taste, defined as umami or savory.
There may be many other flavors that have not yet been discovered. Also, spicy is not a taste. The sense of taste aided in human evolution, according to the NLM, because taste helped people test the food they ate. A bitter or sour taste indicated that a plant might be poisonous or rotten. Something salty or sweet, however, often meant the food was rich in nutrients.
Taste is sensed in the taste buds. These form a structure with a central cavity that contains a chromophore group, which in humans is called retinal —the aldehyde of vitamin A. When retinal absorbs a photon of light, it changes its configuration from the bent cis form to the straight all- trans form , setting off a series of molecular reactions that lead, within a few milliseconds, to a change in the flow of ions through the cell membrane.
In vertebrates light causes the closure of sodium channels, whereas in most invertebrates light results in the opening of sodium channels. Thus, different opsins with different amino acid sequences allow an organism to have receptors with different spectral responses; this is the basis of colour vision. In humans the rods , which are used for night vision and are sensitive to single photons, are maximally sensitive to blue-green light nm , and the three classes of cone s, which mediate colour vision in daylight, are maximally sensitive to blue nm , green nm , and red nm light.
In bees , which also have colour vision, the three maxima are shifted toward shorter wavelengths—ultraviolet nm , blue nm , and green nm. Ultraviolet receptors are also found in birds and fish. Many invertebrates have the capacity to see and analyze polarized light.
Polarization arises from atmospheric scattering and reflection at smooth surfaces such as water. In polarized light all the photons have their electrical fields vibrating in the same plane; this can be detected by photoreceptors if the molecules are appropriately aligned.
The projecting microvillus structure of invertebrate receptors makes this possible. The optical systems of eyes break down light according to its direction of origin and thus form images that can be used for navigation and pattern recognition. There are about 10 ways of forming images, including pinholes, lenses , and mirrors. Senses Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback.
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